Characteristics of Mineral Rock and Ore


The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of the ore and Nb-mineral rock in Bayan Obo Deposit, followed by geochemical aspects as well as the connection between magmatic rocks and mineralization. The ore minerals would be divided into primary and secondary groups/types/categories. the first mineral particle size is fine; the vein ore and secondary recrystallization minerals ar within the coarse grain structure. Some minerals exist above all ores. as an example, ore would be perpetually shaped into huge, banded, disseminated structures. Some bands contain grouping minerals, and most of the atomic number 41 mineralization is within the reasonably fine vein of the mining space. Ore mineralization primarily involves hematitization, magnetization, grouping minerals and atomic number 41 (tantalum) minerals mineralization, that ar strictly restricted to volcanic and predicament matter rocks, namely, sodic igneous rock, wealthy metal silicious rock and dolomite. The ores ar created in mica metamorphic rock and dolomite interbedding rock sections. Ore deposit mineralization is magmatic liquation and synergistic hydrothermal metasomatic metallogenic method. within the stage of Caledonian and Hercynian, tectonic and magmatic hydrothermal activities have obvious effects, resulting in ore-forming material distribution and obvious structure amendment.


The Bayan Obo Fe–REE–Nb deposit contains grouping and atomic number 41 ore minerals, that ar closely related to ore. The deposit is found in northwest Baotou, Nei Monggol, China. it's rumored that the whole reserve of iron during this region is a minimum of one.5 billion metric tons, with a median grade of thirty fifth. additionally, the deposit is calculable to incorporate forty eight million heaps of grouping oxides, with average grade of 6 June 1944, and or so one million heaps of atomic number 41, with average grade of zero.13% [1].

Studies have shown that the rift system was developed at the northern margin of the Sino-Korean formation throughout the Early-Middle Proterozoic era, that created the tectonic setting for the deposition of the Bayan Obo cluster and therefore the ore deposits [2,3].

Ore characteristics within the western mining space disagree from different areas. The ore may be divided into 3 types: ore, grouping ore and atomic number 41 ore. supported the ore elements and visual gangue mineral contents, the ore may be categorised into 3 natural types: rock, micaceous and amphibolic [4,5]. in keeping with previous studies, atomic number 41 ore may be categorised into 3 types: rock atomic number 41 ore, mica-amphibolic atomic number 41 ore and slate atomic number 41 ore. The natural classification of grouping ores may be divided into these same classes [5].

Samples assortment and analytical approach

The work flow may be delineated as follows:
  • Investigation of the connection between the ore body and close rock. 
  • According to the earth science landform collected differing types of samples. 
  • Tags and classification of the samples. 
  • The chemical composition analysis and microscopic analysis of the samples.


Different samples with totally different component proportions and kinds by microscopic identification, SEM, XRF and ICP-MS analysis ar designated as follows.

  • The encircling rock
    Compared with the encircling rock of iron, ore body is especially dolomite, isinglass flash rock ore and slate. they're in step with the ore incidence, with mutated or gradient relationship. it absolutely was mutation relationship wherever the ore body involved with slate, and gradual relationship wherever involved with dolomite and isinglass flash rock ore, the nearer with ore body the stronger the degree, the whole Fe content (TFe) has regarding 2 %.
    Compared to atomic number 41 and grouping ore, the overwhelming majority of the ore close rock ar atomic number 41 ore and grouping ore. 
  • The ore sorts
    The rock ore sometimes has 3 ore sorts as well as disseminated, veined-disseminated and large kind, and alittle quantity of block ore. The magnetic iron-ore is usually known as euhedral or xenomorphic crystals texture. ore minerals ar accommodates magnetic iron-ore, alittle quantity of siderite and magnesium-siderite. The dolomite that a number of them contained iron, is that the primarily element of gangue minerals, the opposite elements followed by mica, phlogopite, riebeckite. the key minerals
    associated with grouping ar mineral, bastnasite and cebaite etc. And columbite, aeschynite, pyrochlore, etc. ar the most exist kind of atomic number 41 minerals. Mica-amphibolic kind ore is sometimes bestowed as disseminated, taxitic and large structures, and in hypidiomorphic or xenomorphic crystals texture. The ore minerals accommodates magnetic iron-ore and alittle quantity of magnesium-siderite ore. The Gangue minerals primarily accommodates riebeckite, mica and isinglass, followed by iron dolomite and dolomite. mineral and bastnasite ar the dominated grouping minerals. atomic number 41 minerals perpetually existed in columbite, aeschynite, pyrochlore and fersmite. different minerals ar bestowed as iron pyrite, apatite, and fluor, followed by mineral, mineral, mineral and blende. 
  • Ore textures
    The main classification basis of texture and structure for Bayan Obo West mine ore was in keeping with mineral tectonic morphological characteristics. So, supported the morphological characteristics of helpful minerals within the ore and different mineral mixture embedded relationship with one another, the ore structure is split into the followings.
Table 1: Textures for Bayan Obo West mine ore

Ore texture types

Euhedral crystal,
The primary of all kinds of west mine ores, just

Hypidiomorphic crystalxenomorphic,
like magnetite, rare earth minerals, niobium

crystalmosaic texture
minerals and other minerals can take the shape of

these kinds of textures.

Metasomatic relict texture
Typical metasomatic relict texture. Monazite may

be always formed as metasomatism by carbonate

mineral, as well as barite, biotite, riebeckite exist

shaped relict texture by other minerals.

Granite blastic texture
Iron dolomite, ankerite, dolomite, monazite and

bastnaesite could be formed as granite blastic

texture ranged by different size granulas closely.

Phenocryst blastic texture
The coarse grains existed in dolomite iron ore,

dolomite niobium ore and dolomite with

porphyraceous siderite, ankerite, fine grained

porphyritic dolomite and iron dolomite could be

formed this kind of texture.

Seriate texture
Monazite in the various types of ore, bastnaesite,

pyrochlore, aeschynite, niobite, iron dolomite and

magnetite could be taken this formation of seriate


Oolitic texture,
A kind of metasomatic relict texture, in the ore of

sphaerulitic texture
surface weathered eluvial horizon, some carbonate

minerals containing iron oxide just as dolomite,

calcite, be processed as it.

Table 2: Structures for Bayan Obo West mine ore

Ore structure types

Massive structure
As the characteristic structure of block ore, magnetite in

granular aggregate can form to dense hard ore with

higher magnetite content and less gangue mineral


Disseminated, crumb structure
The main structure of iron ore and niobium ore in west

mine. Magnetite shows block or aggregate disseminated

types in iron dolomite, dolomite, biotite and riebeckite.

While rare earth and niobium minerals are as single

crystal or aggregate disseminated shown in the ore.

Banded structure
Monazite and bastnaesite can be presented as banded

dolomite type in niobium ore. Likewise, fluorite with

monazite together also can be formed. But fluorite or

bastnaesite could be instituted banded structure alone.

Metasomatic filling of magnetite can get through

sedimentary micro beddings formed as the banded

structure. And also slate type of niobium ore could turn

into dolomite banded structure.

Mottled structure
Magnetites present as the irregular aggregates, part of

them dense and part sparsely sporadic. Some carbonatites

in sodium or cerium elements and iron dolomite could be

taken this structure, and the same as metal sulfide,

riebeckite and biotite.

Porphyroblast structure
There would be siderite, ankerite of coarse grain and

porphyroblast structure formation in dolomite iron ore

and dolomite niobium ore.

Net vein structure
Magnetite filling along the vein fissure of carbonate

mineral or silicate mineral could be presented as

metasomatic net vein structure. Sulfide and rare earth

minerals fill along the tiny fissure as the net vein.

Limonite as the vein or staggered net vein disseminated

in iron dolomite or among the magnesium-siderite

monomers or aggregates take the net vein structure.

Vein structure
Formation of all kinds of rare earth vein in the late could

be presented this structure: monazite veins, bastnaesite

veins, cebaite veins, and vein of the Yellow River Ore,

aeschynite-albite veins, vein of Baotou Ore and limonite

formed by surface weathering leaching and so on.

Brecciated structure
With the influence of tectonic damage in the ore, the

partial brecciated structure is appeared.

  • Ore chemical composition analysis
    Author uses four sorts of ore during this discussion, that is that the dolomite-type ore (S1, S2), the riebeckite-type ore (S3, S4), mica-type ore (S5, S6) and therefore the dolomite with low iron content (S7, S8). 2 samples of information were taken from every kind and been analyzed and performed with comparison.

    Ore containing a spread of components higher than forty, the chemical composition is incredibly difficult. There ar several forms of grouping components and atomic number 41, however the contents ar little less than different areas of ores. incidence of ore is difficult. Iron around common fraction distributed in magnetic iron-ore and martite. the remainder half primarily happens within the carbonate minerals. elements of them ar within the kind of iron pyrite and fersilicite, and haematite and iron ore iron proportion is lower
Characteristics of Mineral Rock and Ore

The characteristics of Dolomite ores (S1, S2 and S7, S8) ar with a high content of metal and metallic element however with low semiconductor and atomic number 13 content. riebeckite type’s ore (S3, S4)has varies content worth of the metal, Magnesium, semiconductor and atomic number 13. inside the dolomite with low content worth (S7,S8) has slightly higher proportion of iron distributed in magnetic iron-ore, however most were distributed in carbonate minerals. For Hybrid isinglass mine (S5, S6), there's high distribution rate of iron in salt and carbonate.

The distribution of grouping element presents that, fluoro-carbonate minerals one more than phosphate’s. And there's a development regarding distribution of grouping element content that iron-lean ore it's perpetually extremely then than traditional ones.


According to the alteration component classifications, a good form of alterations have occurred in ore deposits, with the most sorts classified as metallic element, metal and halide alterations. These alterations ar heavily addicted to location. {niobium|Nb|atomic number 41|metallic component|metal} and grouping element enrichments were found during this study space. Therefore, ore bodies exhibit terribly robust zonality. additionally, the product of alteration ar associated with the lithology and therefore the hydrothermal metasomatic composition as a result of {different|totally totally different|completely different} close rock sorts take different alteration formations.

The ores containing sulfur, phosphorus and F components during this space were usually associated with primary basic magnetic iron-ore. the most element of the recovered ore was iron, that was followed by grouping components, fluorite, niobium, and different minerals, supported utilization. The oxidised ores with higher chemical reaction degrees ar dominated by iron ore and haematite.

The chemical composition of the world is incredibly difficult. additionally, there ar many varieties of grouping components and atomic number 41, and therefore the {rare earth|rare-earth component|lanthanoid|lanthanide|lanthanon|group|grouping} element and atomic number 41 contents ar less than in different areas. The mineral sorts within the ore ar comparatively advanced, and therefore the mineral sorts and contents generally exhibit vital variations between totally different ore sorts.

The {niobium|Nb|atomic number 41|metallic component|metal} and grouping element reserves ar overabundant within the western space of the Bayan Obo deposits. However, polymetallic ore is very tough to recover, primarily owing to its difficult mineralogical composition, advanced dependent relationship, high dispersion degree, and variable species, though this ore is commonly of low grade and indicative of super fine dissemination mineral sizes. geology and ore dressing are the main focus of the western ore, {niobium|Nb|atomic number 41|metallic component|metal} and grouping element resource development and utilization within the future.


Thanks to Bayan Obo west mine production earth science teams and Baotou iron and steel cluster earth science brigade to support for field works.


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  2. G. Bai, Z. Yuan, Z. Zhang, L. Zheng. Demonstration of Geological Features and Genesis of the Bayan Obo Ore Deposit. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 1996, 92-107. 
  3. Baiyun obo ore mining and metallurgy technology editorial board. Baiyun obo ore mining and metallurgy technology of mining volume. Baotou iron and steel company, Baotou. 1994, 24-37. 
  4. Institute of geochemistry Chinese academy of sciences. Baiyun Obo ore deposit geo-chemistry. Science press, Beijing. 1988,112-143. 
  5. S.Q.Li, Theory of Inner Mongolia again Baiyun Obo containing carbonate rock and niobium rare metals, rare earth ore bed formation. The north China plate tectonic corpus. Geological publishing press. Beijing. 1983, 45-60. 
  6. Yuanfu Zhou, Tao Chen, Jianhui Deng, Hongchun Zheng, Yulong Cui “Three-Dimensional Stability Analysis of Slope Regions Based on Strength Reduction Method” [J] Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 2015(20.7): 1689-1698. Available at
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